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Tops ReportAbout TOPS

The Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) is one of the most popular inventories with sport psychology consultants (Weinberg & Gould, 2011). The TOPS profiles athletes’ skills in competition and at practice. Research on the original version of the TOPS was published in the Journal of Sports Sciences (Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999).

Some revisions have been made to improve the validity and reliability of the scales. Because we are keen to monitor the effects of those changes, we ask athletes taking the TOPS to consent to their data being used anonymously for ongoing research purposes.

Thomas, P.R., Murphy, S.M., & Hardy, L. (1999). Test of Performance Strategies: Development and preliminary validation of a comprehensive measure of athletes’ psychological skills. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 697-711.
Hardy, L., Roberts, R., Thomas, P.R., & Murphy, S.M. (2010). Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS): Instrument refinement using confirmatory factor analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 27-35.
Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (2011). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (5th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. © 2007-2024